Meningitis is an infection of the membranes that surround your brain, spinal cord and blood vessels. This can be caused by bacteria, fungi or viruses.

The most common form of meningitis is bacterial meningitis which occurs when the outer membrane (skin) of a bacterium like Streptococcus or Neisseria gets into your bloodstream through a break in your skin or mucous membranes. When this happens, these bacteria travel to the fluid surrounding your brain and spinal cord where they multiply, causing inflammation.

However, you may also have a question that why people get infected with viral meningitis. So there are many valuable points regarding this question but some of them are very common such as mostly people eat packed or processed food, their lifestyle is not healthy etc. If you are doing both of these mistakes than stop now to avoid this infection because prevention is better than cure.

Meningitis has several different causes including the following:


Tuberculosis is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria and occurs mainly in people with weak immune systems. TB is spread from person to person via small particles released when the infected person coughs. The main symptoms of TB are coughing up sputum (phlegm), fever, weakness and weight loss.

TB can also be transmitted by direct contact with someone who is sick with active TB. This includes being in close contact with them for more than two hours per day for three days in a row. If you have been exposed to TB then it’s important in order to protect others not to go to work until at least 24 hours after exposure. Your employer will need to keep records of all staff who were exposed to TB. These include:

  Whether you had any symptoms

  Your name

  When you were exposed

  How long you were exposed


Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a virus that usually affects the mouth or genitals. The HSV type 1 virus is responsible for cold sores and HSV type 2 causes genital herpes. While HSV is normally only found in humans, it can infect other animals including cats and dogs. It can also affect humans who are immunocompromised.

Varicella Zoster (chicken pox)

This is another viral illness caused by the Varicella zoster virus. Chicken pox is commonly known as shingles and is caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox. Chickenpox is contagious and causes blisters on your body. The blisters become red, scaly and painful before healing. After about 10 days, the rash disappears leaving behind small white spots around the edge of the original blister. In some cases, these spots are itchy or painful and may leave a scar. The shingles virus is very contagious and can be spread by touching the blistered area of the skin, even if there is no open sore.

Strep Throat

A strep throat is caused by the group A beta Hemolytic Streptococcus bacteria. It is often called tonsillitis because the primary symptom is the swelling of one or both tonsils. The swelling can cause pain and difficulty swallowing.


Measles is caused by the measles virus and is a highly infectious disease. Measles spreads easily in schools and other places where there are large groups of children. Symptoms of measles include:

  Fever

  Cough

  Runny nose

  Sore eyes

  Red blotches on your face

  Muscle aches and pains

  Headache

Symptoms of measles last between 3-7 days but are usually milder in children.

In rare cases, complications such as pneumonia, ear infections, diarrhea and encephalitis (an inflammation of the brain) can occur. To prevent getting measles, get vaccinated against the virus. For more information see our guide on how to get vaccinated.


Hepatitis is a liver infection that can be caused by many different viruses. Hepatitis A is a virus that can spread from person to person through contaminated food. Hepatitis B is passed from sex without a condom. Hepatitis C is spread by sharing needles. Other types of hepatitis include:

  Dengue fever

  Yellow fever

  Cholera

  Typhoid

  Paratyphoid

  Ebola

  Lassa

Cryptococcal Meningitis

Cryptococcal meningitis is caused by a fungus called Cryptococcus neoformans. This fungus lives in trees and soil and is found wherever there is dampness. People can contract cryptococcal meningitis by inhaling spores from the environment. Cryptococcal Meningitis primarily affects those with suppressed immune systems. It is sometimes referred to as “the forgotten disease” because it is so common yet so difficult to treat. Symptoms of Cryptococcal Meningitis include:

  Headaches

  Fatigue

  Seizures

  Blurred vision

  Nausea

  Vomiting

  Diarrhea

  Loss of appetite

  Altered mental status

Cryptococcal Meningitis can lead to seizures and coma. It is difficult to diagnose and treatment requires high doses of medications. For more information about Cryptococcal Meningitis click here.


Pertussis is a respiratory tract infection that causes coughing fits. Pertussis is most severe in babies under 6 months old but adults can also catch the disease. Pertussis is spread through droplets in the air made during coughing. Symptoms include:

  Coughing fits

  High fever

  Weakness

  Sore throat

  Hoarse voice

  Shortness of breath


Encephalitis is a brain infection that can be caused by various different viruses. Viral encephalitis can develop into a severe condition known as Reye syndrome. This is a rare condition that can affect children.

Guinea Worm Disease

Guinea worm disease is a parasitic infection that can be contracted by drinking water containing Guinea worm larvae. As the worms mature, they emerge from the drinking water and burrow outwards towards the skin. Once emerging, the worm can grow up to five feet long. It is typically found in Africa and Asia. It is not contagious between people.

To avoid contracting Guinea worm disease, use a safe water filter system.